The PADI Rescue Diver course is a key step in expanding an Open Water Diver’s knowledge and experience. Rescue Diver learns to look beyond himself to consider the safety and comfort of other divers.

Diver Prerequisites

  • 12 years old (12-14 year old divers may earn Junior Rescue Diver certifications)
  • PADI (Junior) Adventure Diver certification – must have completed the Underwater Navigation Adventure Dive
  • EFR® Primary and Secondary Care training within 24 months. Training may be completed along with rescue diver course.

Forms

  • Required: Continuing Education Administrative Document (download PDF)
  • Recommended: Rescue Diver Course Training Documentation and Referral Form (download PDF)

Sequencing

If we will integrate Emergency First Response Primary and Secondary Care training into the Rescue Diver course, it would be best to complete it before Rescue Exercise 7 - Unresponsive Diver at the Surface, where divers practice resuscitation techniques.

In any schedule you will have to complete Rescue Exercises 1-6 before participating in Rescue Scenario 1, and Exercises 7-10 before participating in Rescue Scenario 2.

The following sample schedules suggest ways we can organize our PADI Rescue Diver course to meet sequencing requirements.

Schedule 1

Day One

Independent Study – You will read Rescue Diver Manual and watch Rescue Diver Video, Section One and complete Knowledge Review Welcome/Introduction and Knowledge Development One.

Rescue Exercises (may be conducted before Knowledge Development One).

  • Self Rescue Review
  • Exercise 1 – Tired Diver
  • Exercise 2 – Panicked Diver

Emergency First Response Primary Care (CPR) and Secondary Care (First Aid) courses.

Day Two

Independent Study – Manual and Video, Section Two Knowledge Development Two.

Rescue Exercise 3 – Response from Shore, Boat or Dock.

Day Three

Independent Study – Manual and Video, Section Three Knowledge Development Three.

Rescue Exercises

  • Exercise 4 – Distressed Diver Underwater
  • Exercise 5 – Missing Diver

Emergency Assistance Plan – Review diver’s completed plan.

Day Four

Independent Study – Manual and Video, Section Four Knowledge Development Four.

Rescue Exercises

  • Exercise 6 – Surfacing the Unresponsive Diver
  • Exercise 7 – Unresponsive Diver at the Surface

Day Five

Independent Study – Manual and Video, Section Five Knowledge Development Five.

Rescue Diver Exam.

Rescue Exercises

  • Exercise 8 – Exiting the Unresponsive Diver
  • Exercise 9 – First Aid for Pressure-related Injuries and Oxygen Administration (or PADI Emergency Oxygen Provider course skill development)
  • Exercise 10 – Response from Shore/Boat Unresponsive Diver

Rescue Scenario 1 – Unresponsive Diver Underwater.

Rescue Scenario 2 – Unresponsive Diver at the Surface.

Schedule 2

Independent Study – Divers read entire Rescue Diver Manual, watch Rescue Diver Video and complete all Knowledge Reviews.

Emergency First Response Primary Care (CPR) and Secondary Care (First Aid) courses.

Welcome/Introduction and Knowledge Development – Go over Knowledge Reviews. Use Rescue Diver Prescriptive Lesson Guides to cover or review material as necessary.

Rescue Diver Exam

Rescue Exercises — Self Rescue Review and Exercises 1 -10

Emergency Assistance Plan – Review divers completed plan.

Rescue Scenario 1 – Unresponsive Diver Underwater.

Rescue Scenario 2 – Unresponsive Diver at the Surface.

Schedule 3

Independent Study – Divers read Rescue Diver Manual and watch Rescue Diver Video, Sections One-Three, and complete associated Knowledge Reviews

Emergency First Response Primary Care (CPR) and Secondary Care (First Aid) Courses

Welcome/Introduction and Knowledge Development – Go over Knowledge Reviews for Sections One-Three. Use Rescue Diver Prescriptive Lesson Guides to cover or review material as necessary.

Rescue Exercises:

  • Self Rescue Review
  • Exercise 1 – Tired Diver
  • Exercise 2 – Panicked Diver
  • Exercise 3 – Response from Shore, Boat or Dock
  • Exercise 4 – Distressed Diver Underwater
  • Exercise 5 – Missing Diver
  • Exercise 6 – Surfacing the Unresponsive Diver

Emergency Assistance Plan – Review diver’s completed plan

Rescue Scenario 1 – Unresponsive Diver Underwater

Independent Study – Divers read Rescue Diver Manual and watch Rescue Diver Video, Sections Four and Five, and complete associated Knowledge Reviews.

Rescue Diver Exam

Rescue Exercises:

  • Exercise 7 – Unresponsive Diver at the Surface
  • Exercise 8 – Exiting the Unresponsive Diver
  • Exercise 9 – First Aid for Pressure-related Injuries and Oxygen Administration (or PADI Emergency Oxygen Provider course skill development)
  • Exercise 10 – Response from Shore/Boat Unresponsive Diver

Rescue Scenario 2 – Unresponsive Diver at the Surface.

RESCUE EXERCISES

First I will introduce and demonstrate skills, as appropriate, then you will practice procedures until you are comfortable and meet performance requirements.

Self Rescue Review

Cramp release – You will have to stretch the “cramped” calf muscle by pulling the fin tip toward the body.

Establishing buoyancy at the surface – You will have to demonstrate positive buoyancy at the surface by inflating your BCDs using both low pressure inflation and oral inflation methods and by releasing and discarding weight belts/systems.

Airway control – You will have to perform the snorkel to regulator exchange and practice breathing past small amounts of water.

Use of an alternate air source – You will have to locate, secure and breathe from an alternate air source supplied by a buddy, in a stationary position. You will swim together with your buddy using the alternate air source. Each diver will acts as donor and receiver, and we will complete the exercise ascending while breathing from an alternate air source.

Overcoming vertigo – You will have to close your eyes in midwater to simulate vertigo, then take hold of something stationary, such as the descent line, to reestablish your sense of direction.

Rescue Exercise 1 – Tired Diver

Approach – Advise rescuers to always equip themselves with at least mask, fins and snorkel. Have one person watch the tired diver as the rescuer puts on mask and fins and enters the water. Procedures – swim with the head out of water; continuously watch the tired diver and pace approach to have sufficient energy to complete the rescue.

Evaluate – Have the rescuer halt the approach near, but out of reach of, the tired diver. Procedures — assess the victim’s mental state (rational or irrational); note the location and type of BCD inflator; and attempt to talk the diver through the difficulty by providing commanding, clear and concise directions. (“Inflate your BCD!” “Drop your weights!”)

Make Contact – Have the rescuer establish substantial personal buoyancy, then continue to approach from the front. Procedures — explain what is being done or request that the diver take action; use a contact-support position (underarm lift or tank knee cradle) to stabilize and reassure the tired diver; and provide the tired diver with positive buoyancy (use of lowpressure inflator preferred).

Reassure the – Have the rescuer reassure the tired diver by making eye contact and talking directly to the diver. If surface conditions allow, advise rescuer to let the tired diver remove equipment, such as mask and regulator/snorkel, and rest before resuming activity.

Assists and Transport – Explain that the rescuer should allow the tired diver to do as much as possible. Procedures – while transporting, make sure the tired diver’s face is above the water; have positive buoyancy (both rescuer and tired diver); control the situation, maintain communication and eye-to-eye contact.

Have the rescuer practice the following tows:

  • Underarm push (one and two rescuers)
  • Modified tired-swimmer carry
  • Tank valve tow

Equipment Removal — Have the rescuer help the tired diver discard equipment, such as removing the scuba unit to facilitate swimming, especially for an exit through waves or other challenging conditions.

Rescue Exercise 2 – Panicked Diver

Approach and Evaluation – Instruct the rescuer to approach and evaluate the panicked diver using the same approach as with a tired diver. Explain the importance of stopping and evaluating beyond the victim’s immediate reach. Procedures – note the location and type of BCD inflator; attempt to talk to the diver (“Inflate your BCD!” and “Drop your weights!”); think about making contact based on size and strength relative to the panicked diver – on the surface or from underwater.

Making Contact – For the surface approach, advise the rescuer to attain substantial personal buoyancy and then attempt to swim behind the diver, staying out of reach. Alternatively, grasp the panicked diver’s opposite wrist (right wrist with right hand, or left with left) and quickly pull and turn, spinning the panicked diver. Have the rescuer grasp the tank valve and assume the knee-cradle position, which provides support and gives control, then inflate the diver’s BCD and/or drop the weights.

For the underwater approach – Explain that this is the best choice if the rescuer is substantially smaller or weaker than the panicked diver. Procedures – approach from underwater at knee to ankle level; remove the panicked diver’s weights; turn or swim around the diver to attain a position from behind; ascend while maintaining contact; grasp the tank valve and assume the knee-cradle position; inflate the panicked diver’s BCD (if weights haven’t been removed, do so at this time).

Releases – Explain that releases help regain control of a situation if caught in a panicked diver’s grasp. One release is to breathe from the regulator and descend because underwater is the last place a panicked diver wants to go. Once underwater, continue with an underwater approach rescue.

Another release is to inflate both the rescuer’s and panicked diver’s BCDs to push them apart and establish buoyancy at the same time. Have the rescuer push the panicked diver up and away and then kick away when the diver lets go.

Approach with Quick Reverse – Have the rescuer stop and evaluate the panicked diver while being prepared to quickly back away into a position of safety if the diver reaches out. Procedures — lean backward and angle legs towards the panicked diver, then kick away quickly to stay out of reach.

Rescue Exercise 3 – Response from Shore, Boat or Dock (responsive diver)

Nonswimming Assists – Have the rescuer practice reaching for a distressed diver by lying down on the deck, legs spread with only one hand out. Then, have rescuer practice extending an object to reach farther. Explain that this allows letting go if there is a risk of being pulled in by the distressed diver.

Have the rescuer practice the proper technique for throwing a line and retrieving a distressed diver approximately 9 metres from the pool deck/dock/shore/boat. Emphasize throwing past the distressed diver to avoid needing a second throw, and towing slowly to avoid pulling the line out of the diver’s hands. Discuss use of a stern or tag line trailed behind an anchored vessel as a rescue/assistance device.

Water Entries – Remind the rescuer to always respond wearing at least mask, fins, snorkel and some form of flotation. It may be best to enter the water with mask and snorkel, then put on fins. Discuss the technique for entering into deep water by wearing fins and bringing legs together to avoid submerging the face. Remind the rescuer that if wearing a buoyant exposure suit, weights may be needed to descend if a distressed diver sinks.

Procedures — be close to the water, but avoid losing sight of the distressed diver; enter water at a point nearest the distressed diver; have someone keep an eye on and point to the distressed diver; look back to see where the spotter is pointing as necessary.

Swimming Assists – Have the rescuer use a float such as rescue board, life ring, etc. to assist a distressed diver without making physical contact. Makeshift items such as BCDs, fender buoys, and other buoyant objects work as well – explain the need to be prepared to improvise. Have the rescuer assist a tired or panicked diver when no emergency flotation is available using previously practiced rescue techniques, as appropriate for the situation.

Tows – Have the rescuer practice towing a distressed diver first with all equipment in place.

Then, with the scuba unit and weights removed. Use the following tows:

  • Underarm push
  • Modified tired-swimmer carry
  • Tank valve tow

Exiting with a Responsive Diver – Explain that if the exit will be difficult, allow the distressed diver to rest to save energy for when it is needed most. Also consider which, if any, equipment to remove to make the exit easier.

For a shore exit, have the rescuer assist a weak distressed diver by standing at the diver’s side with the diver’s arm over a shoulder while grabbing the diver’s wrist and supplying further support around the diver’s waist or tank. Then, walk the distressed diver to safety. If the diver is too weak to walk, have the diver crawl out.

For a boat or dock exit, have the rescuer help the distressed diver remove equipment and then assist in crawling up the ladder.

Rescue Exercise 4 – Distressed Diver Underwater

Overexertion Underwater – Remind the rescuer that a distressed, overexerted diver underwater will display heavy breathing and stress signs like wide eyes. Procedures – approach the distressed diver and signal “stop;” make gentle physical contact to reassure the diver; have the diver hold on to something while resting, if possible; and encourage the diver to reestablish a normal breathing rhythm.

Panicked Diver Making Uncontrolled Ascent – Underwater have the rescuer watch for a panicked diver in a head up orientation, swimming with arms and fixated on the surface. Procedures – make contact with the panicked diver, low on the body or from behind, to slow and control the panicked ascent; dump air from the BCD(s) and flare out to create drag.

Emphasize that “panicked divers” should keep the regulators in their mouths and the ascent rate should be no faster than 18 metres per minute. The maximum depth for this exercise is 12 metres.

Out-of-Air Emergency and Ascent – Make sure divers are familiar with each other’s alternate air source configurations. Have a diver simulating an out-of-air emergency swim up to the rescuer. Procedures – provide an alternate air source and take control of the situation; communicate with the out-of-air diver; maintain contact and ensure that the diver has reestablished normal breathing before beginning the ascent.

Ask the out-of-air diver to orally inflate the BCD at the surface to continue simulating out-of-air. Have the rescuer provide buoyancy support during oral inflation.

Rescue Exercise 5 – Missing Diver

Missing Diver Procedures – Conduct this exercise as a scenario of a diver who surfaces then disappears, perhaps incapacitated. Have each rescuer take charge of the situation and start by determining where the diver was last seen by talking to the diver’s buddy or others who may have seen the diver. Procedures – post spotters to watch for bubbles; send skin divers to mark the last known location; begin the initial search with a buddy on scuba in the area where the missing diver was last seen; sink, not swim, to the bottom to replicate how an unconscious diver might drift; use the search pattern most suited to the environment or situation — U pattern search, expanding square search, circular search and surface led search.

It’s useful to have the rescuer walk through search patterns on land/boat first.

Rescue Exercise 6 – Surfacing the Unresponsive Diver

Positive Buoyancy Ascents – Have student divers use their low pressure inflators to make themselves slightly positively buoyant, then kick upward to start the ascent. The divers need to vent excess air to control the ascent rate – frequently releasing small amounts of air from the BCD so the expanding air doesn’t cause a runaway ascent. Explain that if they become too positively buoyant, they can slow the ascent by flaring out. The divers need to breathe continuously and ascend no faster than 18 metres per minute. The maximum depth for this exercise is 9 metres.

Surfacing an Unresponsive Diver — Have the rescuer find an unresponsive diver underwater.

Procedures – take note of the situation without wasting time – for example, look to see if the cause of the accident is obvious, what equipment is in place and what is the unresponsive diver’s position relative to bottom (face down, floating off bottom, etc.); if the regulator is in the diver’s mouth, hold it in place during ascent and if not, don’t waste time trying to replace it; grasp the unresponsive diver from behind or by the tank valve and maintain head in a normal position; establish slight positive buoyancy (unresponsive diver or rescuer) and control the ascent as practiced.

Advise divers that if the rescuer loses control of the ascent – abort the exercise, establish control and try again. On reaching the surface, have the rescuer turn the unresponsive diver face up, establish positive buoyancy, including effective weight removal, and call for help.

Rescue Exercise 7 – Unresponsive Diver at the Surface

Make Contact and Check for Breathing – Have the rescuer first confirm that the diver is unresponsive by splashing or calling to the diver. Procedures – get the unresponsive diver’s face above water by crossing arms and grabbing the wrists to turn the diver face up; establish buoyancy by removing weight pockets and/or weight belt, pulling clear from the body before dropping and inflating BCDs; at some point, call for help; remove the unresponsive diver’s mask and regulator, open the airway and check for breathing for approximately 10 seconds by placing your face near the diver’s mouth while looking at the diver’s chest. Make sure equipment handlers are in place to hold on to removed equipment.

Inwater Rescue Breathing – Remind the rescuer that the priorities are to keep water from entering the unresponsive diver’s airway, to maintain effective and adequate ventilations and to pace physical exertion to avoid exhaustion. Have the rescuer start by establishing enough buoyancy to maintain comfortable and effective technique. Then have the rescuer open and maintain the unresponsive diver’s airway using the do-si-do and head cradle methods. (Teaching positioning for mouth-to-nose breathing is optional.)

Have the rescuer use a pocket mask by deploying the mask on approach to the victim. Procedures — work above the unresponsive diver’s head, with fingers on the diver’s jaw bone, thumbs on mask and diver’s head tilted to maintain airway; start with two full breaths near (not in) the pocket mask inlet, and then one breath every five seconds; place a thumb over inlet and maintain mask seal to protect from waves entering the mask.

Have the rescuer practice mouth-to-mouth breathing. Procedures — maintain the open airway; administer two initial breaths by slightly lifting and rolling the unresponsive diver toward you without submerging the diver; simulate mouth-to-mouth contact by sealing your mouth on the diver’s chin (immediately below the mouth); follow with one breath every five seconds; and in adverse environmental conditions, cover the unresponsive diver’s mouth while not ventilating.

Cover optional mouth-to-nose techniques if this is an appropriate technique for the area. Also cover optional mouth-to-snorkel techniques by reviewing acceptable snorkel types, correct positioning of snorkel and hands, and use during towing.

Equipment Removal While Towing – Remind the rescuer that equipment removal is always a secondary priority to administering effective ventilations and getting an unresponsive diver out of the water as quickly as possible. Simulating a long swim to shore, have the rescuer remove personal gear and the unresponsive diver’s equipment in small steps. Make sure equipment handlers are in place to hold on to removed equipment.

Procedures – think about buoyancy first; start removing equipment in a logical order while always using one hand to ensure the diver’s airway stays open; keep a rhythm when giving rescue breaths and release and remove equipment pieces between breaths; if rescue breaths are interrupted, resume as soon as possible with two breaths; and keep towing to safety while ditching gear.

Have the rescuer practice different techniques such as removing personal equipment first, then the unresponsive diver’s. Have the rescuer practice with divers of different sizes with different equipment configurations, if possible.

Rescue Exercise 8 – Exiting the Unresponsive Diver

Exit with a Breathing, Unresponsive Diver – If exiting onto shore, discuss techniques for getting through surf or dealing with a rocky exit as appropriate for the area. Have the rescuer practice the following carries as appropriate for the environment and based on the rescuer’s capabilities:

  • Drag
  • Fireman’s carry
  • Saddleback carry
  • Packstrap carry

Next have rescuers practice two-person carries onto shore. If conducting dock or boat exits, have the rescuer practice the following exit techniques as appropriate and based on the rescuer’s capabilities.

  • Standard lifeguard exit
  • Ladder carry

Next have rescuers practice two-person exits onto the dock or boat including:

  • Roll up
  • Use of backboard or makeshift backboard.

Exit with a Nonbreathing Diver – For a nonbreathing diver, explain that the main priority is maintaining continuous rescue breathing while exiting. The rescuer should not interrupt rescue breaths longer than 30 seconds, and if possible, administer two ventilations prior to interruption and administer two breaths when resuming rescue breathing.

Have the rescuer start rescue breathing with the nonbreathing diver, then exit the water using one of the carries or techniques previously practiced – first unassisted and then again with assistance. Encourage the rescuer to try different techniques with each attempt until confident in exiting with a nonbreathing diver.

Rescue Exercise 9 – First Aid for Pressure-related Injuries and Oxygen Administration

Administer Oxygen to a Breathing, Unresponsive Diver – Remind the rescuer that a breathing injured diver can get 100 percent oxygen through a nonresuscitator demand valve unit. If not available, a free-flow mask is acceptable. Have the rescuer start by opening the oxygen kit and assembling the unit, if necessary. Procedures – slowly open the valve and test the unit by inhaling from the mask, but not exhaling into the mask; secure the oxygen unit to prevent movement and say to the injured diver “This is oxygen. It will help you. May I give it to you?” if no answer, assume agreement; place the mask on the diver’s face; use the head strap and be sure to monitor the oxygen pressure gauge.

Administer Oxygen to a Nonbreathing Diver – Explain that with a nonbreathing diver, using a pocket mask with oxygen inlet valve and continuous flow oxygen is beneficial. Have a student diver (or staff) begin CPR on a simulated nonbreathing diver (or mannequin) while using a pocket mask for rescue breathing. Have the rescuer open the oxygen kit and attach the oxygen tube from the continuous flow outlet to the pocket mask without interfering with rescue breathing/CPR. Procedures – slowly turn open the valve and set the flow rate for 15 litres per minute; secure the oxygen unit to prevent movement and monitor the oxygen pressure gauge.

Have the rescuers switch positions so that everyone does CPR and also attaches the oxygen to the mask.

Rescue Exercise 10 – Response from Shore/Boat to Unresponsive (nonbreathing) Diver at the Surface

Unresponsive Diver at the Surface – Explain that this exercise combines most of the skills student divers have been learning and prepares them for participating in the scenarios. Start by positioning the nonbreathing diver and equipment handler 50-100 metres/yards offshore or away from the boat. Have the rescuer enter the water (without scuba), swim to the unresponsive nonbreathing diver and initiate rescue breathing. Procedures – transport the nonbreathing diver toward safety, removing equipment if it seems appropriate; exit with the nonbreathing diver while continuing rescue breathing using aid if it’s available (other student divers or certified assistant).

Once on shore/boat, tell the rescuer that the nonbreathing diver does have a weak pulse, but is still not breathing. Have the rescuer take first aid measures such as administering oxygen. Repeat the exercise until all student divers have been the rescuer.

Emergency Assistance Plan

Have each student diver prepare an emergency assistance plan for the location(s) where the scenario(s) will be held. Assign the location ahead of time to allow time for divers to complete the plan(s). Refer divers to Chapter One of the PADI Rescue Diver Manual for information on emergency assistance plans.

Evaluate the Emergency Assistance Plans based on their completeness in providing information needed to manage a dive accident at the assigned site. The plan may include information such as local emergency medical contact information, contact information for localauthorities involved in evacuating an injured diver, contact for area diver emergency service (if applicable) or nearest operational recompression chamber, communication requirements (such as if the area has no cellular service) and any other information that would apply to the particular area.

When plans are complete, have divers make copies of their plans for each other’s reference and use during the scenarios. The Emergency Assistance Plan may be credited as meeting the Emergency Assistance Plan requirement in the PADI Divemaster course.

RESCUE SCENARIOS

Scenario 1 – Unresponsive Diver Underwater

Set Up:

  1. Maximum depth for this scenario is 9 metres.
  2. Consider conducting the scenario in two parts. The first part is the search for the missing diver and the second part is bringing a diver simulating unresponsiveness to the surface using controlled positive buoyancy.
  3. For the first part, have rescuers search for a large object rather than a diver, so that bubbles don’t easily give away the location. When the object is found, have a diver step in as the unresponsive diver.
  4. Use at least four divers to make this scenario realistic (a combination of student divers, certified assistants or other Rescue Divers).
  5. For the scenario, assign divers to be the:
    • Missing, unresponsive diver
    • Missing diver’s buddy
    • Shore or boat support/spotter/skin diver to mark the last known location
    • Rescuers
  6. Have a certified assistant or the missing diver’s buddy position the missing object on the bottom. Have the missing diver’s buddy take a position on the surface not necessarily near the missing object. Position everyone else on shore or the boat.

Conduct:

  1. Begin the scenario with the missing diver’s buddy swimming toward the shore/boat yelling about the missing buddy.
  2. Have the rescuer or rescue buddy team take charge and gather information from the missing diver’s buddy. The rescuer or team should make assignments to the others available and initiate the search for the missing diver.
  3. When the missing object is found, have the rescuer surface an actual missing diver using acontrolled positive buoyancy ascent. This is the end of the scenario.
  4. If the search is taking too long, stop and reorganize the scenario.
  5. Repeat the scenario to build confidence, improve rescuer performance.

Debrief:

Have divers critique themselves constructively while you guide the process by asking these questions:

  • Was the missing diver found quickly? If not, why?
  • Was the search organized quickly and effectively? Was anything left out? If so, what?
  • Did you note the victim’s condition on the bottom?
  • What worked effectively during the rescue? What didn’t?
  • Was emergency care summoned as quickly as possible? Why or why not?
  • What would you do differently?

Scenario 2 – Unresponsive Diver at the Surface

Set Up:

  1. For the scenario, assign divers to be the:
    • Unresponsive diver
    • Rescuer
    • Gear handlers
    • Shore or boat support
  2. Have a first aid kit and oxygen unit available for rescuers to use.
  3. Have a CPR mannequin and AED available, if possible.
  4. Position the unresponsive diver on the surface several metres/yards away from the rescuer. Position gear handlers nearby, but everyone else on the shore or boat.

Conduct:

  1. Begin the scenario with the unresponsive diver weakly calling for help, then slumping over face-down on the surface.
  2. Have the rescuer respond by approaching the diver, evaluating the situation and making contact. At this point, tell the rescuer that the diver is not breathing.
  3. The rescuer should begin inwater resuscitation, getting the diver to the shore or boat and exiting as effectively as possible – using assistance if available.
  4. On the shore or boat deck, when the rescuer checks for signs of circulation, tell the rescuer that the diver has no pulse. At this point, switch a CPR mannequin for the diver, if Available.
  5. End the scenario after a couple minutes of CPR or after the rescuer sets up and uses the AED unit (if available).
  6. Repeat the scenario to build confidence, improve rescuer performance.

Debrief:

Have divers critique themselves constructively while you guide the process by asking these questions:

  • Did you assess the victim’s condition (breathing or not)?
  • Did you assess how long it would take to reach help (more or less than 5 minutes)?
  • Was emergency care summoned as quickly as possible? Why or why not?
  • Was equipment removed? If so, was it done in the best place for the circumstances? Why or why not?
  • How effective was first aid? What could have been improved?
  • What worked effectively during the rescue? What didn’t?
  • What would you do differently?